In addition, the Em shapes are among the easiest to play (Like F#m), only have to fret the 4th and 5th strings (@ the 4th) with the barre @ the 2nd. Adjacent strings in the Em shape seem to be easier because they lie right next to each other. Unlike the Am shapes, from where Bm and the C#m comes from. Just take the Am shape to the 5th fret, playing with the middle, ring and pinky, and barre with the index @ the 4th. I guess you could play a shortcut C#m by just playing the Am shape at the 5th, and strum only the 4th, 3rd,and 2nd strings, but this would require pick control to sound correct...better not be playing a fast strumming song! Plus, in my humble opinion, it's a crutch that should be avoided.
I think one way to gain muscle memory would be to alter how you play the basic open chord shapes, to mimick the fingering you would have in a barre position, like fingering the Am with the middle/ring/pinky to build up strength. i think practicing this way would build the mechanical memory for that fingering. The only thing needed after that is leverage with the index to fill out the chord.